In addition, some established artists from the mids, such as Hwang Mina, Kim Jin, Kim Dong-hwa, Kim Hye-rin and Shin Il-suk — the second generation of Korean sunjeong manhwa artists — often depicted male protagonists and their political and emotional struggles, in which the boundary between male and female readership was often blurred. Though initially influenced by Japanese titles, established artists have openly expressed a nationalistic Korean pride.
Recent Japanese comic books lack sincerity and seem to focus on stimulation.
Such established artists inspired donginji artists both positively and negatively. The donginji artists viewed their predecessors with either admiration or contempt for producing narratives that they regarded as old-fashioned. However, donginji artists were nevertheless influenced by the epic political sagas depicting human alienation and social injustice that established artists produced.
Moreover, because donginji were free of government censorship, they allowed exploration of various narratives and stylistics. For example, both heterosexual and homosexual relationships were openly depicted. Also, donginji contained nudity, which could not be shown in regular girls comic books on the market.
Therefore, donginji provided female comic book artists a safe space in which they not only nurtured their artistic creativity, but also articulated their sexual desires and political consciousness. Son Sang-ik argues that the Western aesthetics of sh jo manga are based on a deep-rooted sense of inferiority on the part of the Japanese towards Western culture. However, some critics dispute this dominant view and focus on the positive influence of sh jo manga.
Choe Yeol states that sh jo manga epics during the s often dealt with political issues amidst their dramas of love, hate, betrayal, and passion. This concern, he argues, thus instilled a political sensibility among female artists and readers, which elevated sunjeong manhwa to a more sophisticated form of expression Choe — Yamanaka Chie explains that many Korean artists who participated in the illegal copying of Japanese manga deny such a past and assert the Korean identity of their productions.
Thus, the illegal copying of Japanese sh jo manga during the s has been ignored in the history of Korean comic books and also in the memory of Korean readers Yamanaka The history of pirating is glossed over briefly. However, embarrassment over such a history is not shared by those artists who branched out from donginji culture. When interviewed, these artists were open about their passion for Japanese manga; they reappropriated them without compunction. Therefore, nationalism, as implicated in comic book culture, may also be gendered — in that male artists and researchers have more at stake in losing their nationalist credentials than the female artists who freely adopted Japanese manga culture.
A few factors in Korea contributed to a smoother process of accepting sh jo manga. First, the comic book culture Korea shared with Japan during the colonial period continued after Liberation. The past decade, as other chapters in this volume show, has witnessed an increase of discourse re-examining the process of trans-Asian cultural flows.
As this study suggests, however, these cultural flows can be empowering to local consumers through regional re-appropriations. Both views provide broader insights into the complex workings of cultural formations within the process of globalization. And yet, how did the decolonization process unfold in Korea prior to globalization, especially given that cultural flows have always existed? A further question is, then, how one culture appropriates from and negotiates with a dominant culture.
Imitating the former colonizer entails the dilemma of both wanting to become and wanting to expunge, thus creating ambivalence.
However, as Korean artists experience generational change, the political stance of formative artists may be diffused, lost, or internalized. The outcome of this process may vary according to each artist; nonetheless, the cultural and conceptual hybridization at work manifests itself in a form that can stir up unease in both the colonizer and the colonized.
At first sight, the narrative resembles closely the record-breaking Japanese sh jo manga Hana Yori Dango Boys over Flowers. Their rhetorical stance was that, since the annexation of Korea started with the increasing flood of Japanese culture that entered Korea during the late nineteenth century, history may repeat itself. Therefore, the third-generation sunjeong manhwa artists who heavily consumed and admired Japanese sh jo manga viewed their own consumption with unease.
Mimicking the Japanese sh jo manga formula, but in combination with a Korean female desire for the political, Gung is a hybrid invention that confronts Japanese readers with their own history and possible blindness to their past. Gung thus provokes nationalism among Korean readers and ambivalence among Japanese readers, and functions as a political text within both cultures. This analysis has attempted to historicize the shifting spaces of sh jo manga and sunjeong manhwa within a Korean context.
A better understanding of sunjeong manhwa culture throughout the s may illuminate how Korean female artists have struggled to get their voices heard within an oppressive environment.
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This approach, however, has often ignored subcultures, which have been deemed less worthy of academic attention. The postmodern trend of recognizing kitsch and pastiche during the late s has occasioned a wave of nostalgia for the past in Korea, including the early days of comic book culture. Nonetheless, the gendered dynamics of the manhwabang associated with sunjeong manhwa culture have been largely ignored. The female realm has been contained within a space that has been safely preserved as a cultural vacuum away from the political.
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- Mark of the Dragonfly?
- In Search of New Horizons: One Hundred Years of Modern Korean Literature.
- Good Grief Im a Vampire Kid!;
This nostalgia for sunjeong manhwa culture glosses over the social and political implications of the genre and the struggles of the actors involved. Although criticized for plagiarizing Japanese sh jo manga, the subculture surrounding sunjeong manhwa took the form of both resistance against, and assimilation into, the establishment of Japanese sh jo manga culture cf.
Hall and Jefferson Hankyeoreh 21, 28 August Interestingly, early sunjeong manhwa were mostly created by male artists such as the aforementioned pioneers. Noh further provides detailed interviews with established artists on this subject. Although these authors were popular artists in the s Japanese sh jo manga scene, and their most recognizable works were copied as well, the titles listed above are not their most prominent works, which indicates the breadth of material copied by Korean ghost artists.
In some cases, artists who participated in the patchwork process but whose reputations were rising were paid a higher wage see Noh Befu, Harumi. Japanese Studies 3— Chin, Mikyung. Asian Survey 44 2 : — Choe, Yeol. Seoul: Yeolhwadang. Dong-A Ilbo. December 19, Accessed 28 September Hall, Stuart.
New York: Macmillan: 19— Hall, Stuart; Jefferson, Tony.
London: Routledge. Iwabuchi, Koichi. Recentering Globalization: Japanese Culture and Transnationalism. Kim, Hyejin; Voos, Paula B. Journal of Contemporary Asia 37 2 : — Kim, Hyung-A. Kim, Kyounghee. Korea Journal 42 2 : 5— Kim, Kyung-hee. Media, Culture and Society 28 1 : — Kwok, Dae-won. Seoul: Namu wa Sup. Kwon, Insook. International Feminist Journal of Politics 3 1 : 26— Lee, Aie-Rie. Policy Studies Journal 24 2 : — Lent, John A. The Journal of Popular Culture 29 1 : — Feminist Economics 7 1 : 63— Noh, Sueen. Seoul: Ewha Womans University. Park, In-ha. Seoul: Sallim Press. Webzine 2 16 , April Accessed 15 March Park, Kyung Ae.
Asian Survey 35 8 : — Shin, Il-suk. Renaissance, March Accessed 18 November Shin, Michael D.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Soh, Chung-Hee. Korea Journal 27 10 : 35— Son, Sang-ik. Seoul: Sigongsa. Spivak, Gayatri. But is it Japan or Britain which is the odd man out?
follow url When originally published this was the first book to explore the real differences, through a point-by-point comparison of two Japanese factories with two British ones making similar products. Direct foreign investment and the activities of multinational corporations are new dynamic elements in the international economy. This book identifies, theoretically and practically, a Japanese model of multinational business operations which has characteristics differing from the American or " This is a detailed study of the extent to which an increased influx of foreign workers is a threat to law and order in the context of the data-generating process of police statistics and the media coverage of "crimes" committed by foreigners.
It shows that a general mood in which foreign workers The Japanese market is an attractive and challenging one.
Interests, Interdependencies and a Gordian Knot
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